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Diabetes. 2008 Dec;57(12):3360-4. doi: 10.2337/db07-1830. Epub 2008 Sep 5.

Role of the ENPP1 K121Q polymorphism in glucose homeostasis.

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  • 1Unit of Endocrinology, Department of Internal and Specialistic Medicine, University of Catania Medical School, Garibaldi Hospital, Catania, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study the role of the ENPP1 Q121 variant on glucose homeostasis in whites from Italy.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

We conducted case-control studies in 764 adults (from two independent samples of 289 nonobese and 485 obese individuals) and 240 overweight/obese children undergoing oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). Early-phase insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity (the insulinogenic index and the insulin sensitivity index) and their interplay (the disposition index) were calculated.

RESULTS:

In adult subjects, glucose profiles during OGTT were significantly (P = 2 x 10(-2)) different across K121Q genotype groups and higher in QQ than KK individuals (P = 5 x 10(-2)). The insulinogenic index was significantly reduced in QQ (18.5 +/- 3.4) compared with both KK (31.6 +/- 1.0; P = 2.2 x 10(-7)) and KQ (30.5 +/- 1.5; P = 3.2 x 10(-6)) individuals. KQ individuals also showed a reduced insulin sensitivity index compared with KK subjects (P = 3.6 x 10(-2)). The disposition index was lower in QQ carriers than in KQ and KK individuals (P = 8 x 10(-3) and 4 x 10(-4), respectively) and lower in KQ than in KK individuals (P = 3 x 10(-2)). Data obtained in overweight/obese children were very similar to those observed in adults, with QQ individuals showing (compared with KQ and KK subjects) a reduced insulinogenic index (P = 7 x 10(-3) and 2 x 10(-2), respectively) and disposition index (P = 2 x 10(-2) and 7 x 10(-3), respectively).

CONCLUSIONS:

Homozygous carriers of the ENPP1 Q121 variant are characterized by an altered glucose homeostasis. Reduced early-phase insulin secretion and inefficient interplay between insulin secretion and sensitivity, which occur at early ages, are major determinants of this defect.

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