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Lung Cancer. 2009 Apr;64(1):13-21. doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2008.07.010. Epub 2008 Sep 3.

Transforming growth factor-beta1 increases cell migration and beta1 integrin up-regulation in human lung cancer cells.

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  • 1Graduate Institute of Chinese Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.


Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) plays a crucial role in adhesion and migration of human cancer cells. Besides, integrins are the major adhesive molecules in mammalian cells. Here we found that TGF-beta1 increased the migration and cell surface expression of beta1 integrin in human lung cancer cells (A549 cells). TGF-beta1 stimulation increased phosphorylation of p85alpha subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Ser(473) of Akt was determined. Besides, we performed that PI3K inhibitor (Ly294002) or Akt inhibitor suppressed the TGF-beta1-induced migration activities of A549 cells. Treatment of A549 cells with NF-kappaB inhibitor (PDTC) or IkappaB protease inhibitor (TPCK) also repressed TGF-beta1-induced cells migration and beta1 integrins expression. In addition, treatment of A549 cells with TGF-beta1 induced IkappaB kinase alpha/beta (IKKalpha/beta) phosphorylation, IkappaB phosphorylation, p65 Ser(536) phosphorylation, and kappaB-luciferase activity. Furthermore, the TGF-beta1-mediated increases in IKKalpha/beta, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and p65 Ser(536) phosphorylation were inhibited by Ly294002 and Akt inhibitor. Co-transfection with p85alpha and Akt mutants also reduced the TGF-beta1-induced kappaB-luciferase activity. Taken together, our results suggest that TGF-beta1 acts through PI3K/Akt, which in turn activates IKKalpha/beta and NF-kappaB, resulting in the activations of beta1 integrins and contributing the migration of human lung cancer cells.

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