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J Immunol. 2008 Sep 15;181(6):4272-8.

RAGE ligation affects T cell activation and controls T cell differentiation.

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  • 1Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.


The pattern recognition receptor, RAGE, has been shown to be involved in adaptive immune responses but its role on the components of these responses is not well understood. We have studied the effects of a small molecule inhibitor of RAGE and the deletion of the receptor (RAGE-/- mice) on T cell responses involved in autoimmunity and allograft rejection. Syngeneic islet graft and islet allograft rejection was reduced in NOD and B6 mice treated with TTP488, a small molecule RAGE inhibitor (p < 0.001). RAGE-/- mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes showed delayed rejection of islet allografts compared with wild type (WT) mice (p < 0.02). This response in vivo correlated with reduced proliferative responses of RAGE-/- T cells in MLRs and in WT T cells cultured with TTP488. Overall T cell proliferation following activation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs were similar in RAGE-/- and WT cells, but RAGE-/- T cells did not respond to costimulation with anti-CD28 mAb. Furthermore, culture supernatants from cultures with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs showed higher levels of IL-10, IL-5, and TNF-alpha with RAGE-/- compared with WT T cells, and WT T cells showed reduced production of IFN-gamma in the presence of TTP488, suggesting that RAGE may be important in the differentiation of T cell subjects. Indeed, by real-time PCR, we found higher levels of RAGE mRNA expression on clonal T cells activated under Th1 differentiating conditions. We conclude that activation of RAGE on T cells is involved in early events that lead to differentiation of Th1(+) T cells.

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