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J Med Chem. 2008 Sep 25;51(18):5856-60. doi: 10.1021/jm701517b.

6-Azido-7-nitro-1,4-dihydroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (ANQX) forms an irreversible bond to the active site of the GluR2 AMPA receptor.

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  • 1Graduate Program in Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94158-2517, USA.


AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are essential for synaptic plasticity. ANQX, a photoreactive AMPA receptor antagonist, is an important biological probe used to irreversibly inactivate AMPA receptors. Here, using X-ray crystallography and mass spectroscopy, we report that ANQX forms two major products in the presence of the GluR2 AMPAR ligand-binding core (S1S2J). Upon photostimulation, ANQX reacts intramolecularly to form FQX or intermolecularly to form a covalent adduct with Glu705.

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