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Bioconjug Chem. 2008 Sep;19(9):1748-52. doi: 10.1021/bc8002106. Epub 2008 Aug 26.

The implications of stochastic synthesis for the conjugation of functional groups to nanoparticles.

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  • 1Program in Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.


Stochastic synthesis of a ligand coupled to a nanoparticle results in a distribution of populations with different numbers of ligands per nanoparticle. This distribution was resolved and quantified using HPLC and is in excellent agreement with the ligand/nanoparticle average measured by 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and potentiometric titration, and yet significantly more disperse than commonly held perceptions of monodispersity. Two statistical models were employed to confirm that the observed heterogeneity is consistent with theoretical expectations.

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