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Immunogenetics. 2008 Nov;60(11):699-710. doi: 10.1007/s00251-008-0326-y. Epub 2008 Aug 26.

Comparative study and expression analysis of the interferon gamma gene locus cytokines in Xenopus tropicalis.

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  • 1State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei, 430072, China.


Using bioinformatics approach, the genome locus containing interleukin (IL)-22, IL-26, and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) genes has been identified in the amphibian, Xenopus tropicalis. Like that in other vertebrates such as fish, birds, and mammals, the Xenopus IL-22, IL-26, and IFN-gamma are clustered in the same chromosome and the adjacent genes are conserved. The genomic structures of the Xenopus IL-22, IL-26, and IFN-gamma gene were identical to that of their mammalian counterparts. The Xenopus IL-22 and IL-26 genes contained five exons and four introns while the Xenopus IFN-gamma gene consisted of four exons and three introns. The Xenopus IL-22, IL-26, and IFN-gamma share 14.1-41.6%, 14.6-31.2%, and 23.7-36.5% identity to their counterparts in other species, respectively. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that the expression of IL-22, IL-26, and IFN-gamma genes was significantly upregulated after simulation with bacterial polyliposaccharide and/or synthetic double-stranded poly(I:C), suggesting these cytokines like those in other vertebrates play an important role in regulating immune response in Xenopus.

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