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J Clin Oncol. 2008 Aug 20;26(24):3971-8. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.16.1414.

Reinduction platform for children with first marrow relapse of acute lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Children's Oncology Group Study[corrected].

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  • 1New York University School of Medicine, Hassenfeld Children's Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, 160 E 32nd St, New York, NY 10016, USA. elizabeth.raetz@nyumc.org

Erratum in

  • J Clin Oncol. 2008 Oct 1;26(28): 4697..

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Treatment of childhood relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a significant challenge. The goal of the Children's Oncology Group (COG) AALL01P2 study was to develop a safe and active chemotherapy reinduction platform, which could be used to evaluate novel agents in future trials.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

One hundred twenty-four patients with ALL and first marrow relapse received three, 35-day blocks of reinduction chemotherapy: 69 with early relapse (ER; < 36 months from initial diagnosis) and 55 with late relapse (LR). Minimal residual disease (MRD) was measured by flow cytometry after each treatment block.

RESULTS:

Second complete remission (CR2) rates at the end of block 1 in 117 assessable patients were 68% +/- 6% for ER (n = 63) and 96% +/- 3% for LR (n = 54; P < .0001). Five of seven patients with T-cell ALL (T-ALL) failed to achieve CR2. Among patients in CR2, MRD greater than 0.01% was detected at the end of block 1 in 75% +/- 7% of ER (n = 36) versus 51% +/- 8% of LR (n = 43; P = .0375) and 12-month event-free survival was 80% +/- 7% versus 58% +/- 7% in MRD-negative versus positive patients (P < .0005). Blocks 2 and 3 of therapy resulted in reduction of MRD burden in 40 of 56 patients who were MRD positive after block 1. Toxicity was acceptable during all three blocks with five deaths (4%) from infections.

CONCLUSION:

The AALL01P2 regimen is a tolerable and active reinduction platform, suitable for testing in combination with novel agents in B-precursor ALL. Alternative strategies are needed for T-ALL. Serial MRD measurements were feasible and prognostic of outcome.

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