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Nano Lett. 2008 Sep;8(9):2718-24. doi: 10.1021/nl801043t. Epub 2008 Aug 19.

Metallic nanohole arrays on fluoropolymer substrates as small label-free real-time bioprobes.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, 240 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.


We describe a nanoplasmonic probing platform that exploits small-dimension (<or=20 microm (2)) ordered arrays of subwavelength holes for multiplexed, high spatial resolution, and real-time analysis on biorecognition events. Nanohole arrays are perforated on a super smooth gold surface (roughness rms < 2.7 A) attached on a fluoropolymer (FEP) substrate fabricated by a replica technique. The smooth surface of gold provides a superb environment for fabricating nanometer features and uniform immobilization of biomolecules. The refractive index matching between FEP and biological solutions contributes to approximately 20% improvement on the sensing performance. Spectral studies on a series of small-dimension nanohole arrays from 1 microm (2) to 20 microm (2) indicate that the plasmonic sensing sensitivity improves as the gold-solution contact area increases. Our results also demonstrate that nanohole arrays with a dimension as small as 1 microm (2) can be used to effectively detect biomolecular binding events and analyze the binding kinetics. The future scientific opportunities opened by this nanohole platform include highly multiplexed analysis of ligand interactions with membrane proteins on high quality supported lipid bilayers.

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