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Vaccine. 2008 Oct 3;26(42):5381-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.07.086. Epub 2008 Aug 15.

Live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vehicles are strong inducers of immunity toward influenza B virus.

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  • 1Department of Infectious Disease, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale Street, Memphis, TN 38105-2794, USA.


Historically, vaccines developed toward influenza viruses of the B type using methodologies developed for influenza A viruses as a blueprint have not been equally efficacious or effective. Because most influenza research and public attention concerns influenza A viruses, these shortcomings have not been adequately addressed. In this manuscript, we utilized different influenza vaccine vehicles to compare immunogenicity and protection in mice and ferrets after vaccination against an influenza B virus. We report that plasmid DNA vaccines demonstrate low immunogenicity profiles and poor protection compared to either whole, inactivated influenza virus (IIV) or, live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines. When mixed prime:boost regimens using LAIV and IIV were studied, we observed a boosting effect in mice after priming with LAIV that was not seen when IIV was used as the prime. In ferrets LAIV induced high antibody titers after a single dose and provided a boost in IIV-primed animals. Regimens including LAIV as a prime demonstrated enhanced protection, and adjuvantation was required for efficacy using the IIV preparation. Our results differ from generally accepted influenza A virus vaccine models, and argue that strategies for control of influenza B virus should be considered separately from those for influenza A virus.

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