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Arch Oral Biol. 2008 Dec;53(12):1172-8. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.06.003. Epub 2008 Jul 30.

Genetic diversity and exoenzyme activities of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolated from the oral cavity of Brazilian periodontal patients.

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  • 1Clinical Periodontology, Dental School of University of Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.



Mucosal surfaces are the primary oral reservoirs of Candida species, but these species can also be found in subgingival biofilm. The present study investigated the genetic diversity and production of exoenzymes of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolated from the oral cavity of systemically healthy patients with periodontitis.


Fifty-three patients were analysed. Samples were collected from three oral cavity sites (periodontal pocket, gingival sulci and oral mucosa), plated and, after isolation, suspect strains of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were identified by PCR. The genetic diversity of the isolates was evaluated by RAPD and the activities of the secreted aspartyl proteinases and phospholipases were evaluated by the agar plate method.


Twenty-one patients showed positive results for Candida spp. There were no statistically significant differences between genders, or between sites. C. albicans was the most frequently found specie, while C. dubliniensis was isolated from the periodontal pocket of only one patient. Sixteen genotypes were detected among the C. albicans isolates, and one among the C. dubliniensis isolates. The similarity coefficient (S(SM)) values among the C. albicans genotypes ranged from 0.684 to 1.0 with an average of 0.905+/-0.074. All isolates produced high levels of Saps and most of them produced high levels of phospholipases. No relationship was found between the genotypes and the pattern of enzymatic production. There was no association between specific genotypes and their site of isolation.


The results of the present study suggest that genetically homogeneous strains of C. albicans are present in the oral cavity of patients with periodontitis and that these strains are capable of producing high levels of exoenzyme.

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