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Rev Urol. 2008 Spring;10(2):120-35.

Critical evaluation of urinary markers for bladder cancer detection and monitoring.

Abstract

Bladder cancer is currently diagnosed using cystoscopy and cytology in patients with suspicious signs and symptoms. These tests are also used to monitor patients with a history of bladder cancer. The recurrence rate for bladder cancer is high, thus necessitating long-term follow-up. Urine cytology has high specificity but low sensitivity for low-grade bladder tumors. Recently, multiple noninvasive urine-based bladder cancer tests have been developed. Although several markers have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for bladder cancer surveillance, only a few are approved for detection of bladder cancer in high-risk patients.

KEYWORDS:

Bladder cancer; Cystoscopy; Tumor markers; Urine cytology

PMID:
18660854
[PubMed]
PMCID:
PMC2483317
Free PMC Article
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