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Neurol Clin. 2008 Aug;26(3):799-819, x. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2008.04.002.

HIV infection of the central nervous system: clinical features and neuropathogenesis.

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  • 1Division of Neurology, Queen's University, 76 Stuart Street, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada.


Almost 65 million people worldwide have been infected with HIV since it was first identified in the early 1980s. Neurologic disorders associated with HIV type 1 affect between 40% and 70% of infected individuals. The most significant of these disorders include HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, which comprises HIV-associated dementia, mild neurocognitive disorder, and asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. Despite the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-related central nervous system disorders continue to represent a substantial personal, economic, and societal burden. This review summarizes the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and pathogenesis of the primary HIV-associated central nervous system disorders.

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