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Virus Genes. 2008 Oct;37(2):144-52. doi: 10.1007/s11262-008-0248-7. Epub 2008 Jul 10.

Phylogenic analysis of the M genes of influenza viruses isolated from free-flying water birds from their Northern Territory to Hokkaido, Japan.

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  • 1Department of Disease Control, Laboratory of Microbiology, Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18 Nishi 9 Kita-Ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-0818, Japan.

Erratum in

  • Virus Genes. 2008 Oct;37(2):153.


During 2000-2007, 218 influenza viruses of 28 different combinations of HA (H1-H13) and NA (N1-N9) subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of free-flying water birds at two distant lakes in Hokkaido, Japan. Phylogenic analysis of the matrix (M) genes of 67 strains, selected on the basis of their subtype combinations, revealed that A/duck/Hokkaido/W95/2006 (H10N8) was a reassortant whose M and NA genes [corrected] belonged to North American non-gull-avian and the other six [corrected] genes to Eurasian non-gull-avian lineages. The M genes of other 65 strains belonged to Eurasian non-gull-avian and the one to Eurasian-gull lineages. The M genes of 65 strains were grouped into three different sublineages, indicating that influenza viruses circulating in different populations of free-flying water birds have evolved independently in nature.

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