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Clin Neuropsychol. 2008 Dec;22(6):1018-34. doi: 10.1080/13854040701750883. Epub 2008 Apr 21.

Understanding the neuropsychological profile of HIV+ participants with low literacy: role of the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA).

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Fordham University, New York, NY, USA.


The WRAT-3 Reading subtest (WRS) may be inappropriate in diseases having disproportionate impact on populations with educational disadvantages (i.e., HIV/AIDS). To understand how low literate individuals would perform on an IQ test requiring minimal education, the General Ability Measure for Adults (GAMA) was studied. HIV+ participants completed WRS, GAMA, and neuropsychological tests. Participants with low WRS (<80 SS) but higher GAMA (>or=80 SS) had significantly better overall neuropsychological functioning than those with <80 SS on both tests. The GAMA may be a useful test when disparities in educational quality render reading-based measures of IQ a poor surrogate of premorbid function.

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