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Nat Chem Biol. 2008 Aug;4(8):491-7. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.99. Epub 2008 Jul 6.

Estimation of the available free energy in a LOV2-J alpha photoswitch.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390-8816, USA.

Abstract

Protein photosensors are versatile tools for studying ligand-regulated allostery and signaling. Fundamental to these processes is the amount of energy that can be provided by a photosensor to control downstream signaling events. Such regulation is exemplified by the phototropins--plant serine/threonine kinases that are activated by blue light via conserved LOV (light, oxygen and voltage) domains. The core photosensor of oat phototropin 1 is a LOV domain that interacts in a light-dependent fashion with an adjacent alpha-helix (J alpha) to control kinase activity. We used solution NMR measurements to quantify the free energy of the LOV domain-J alpha-helix binding equilibrium in the dark and lit states. These data indicate that light shifts this equilibrium by approximately 3.8 kcal mol(-1), thus quantifying the energy available through LOV-J alpha for light-driven allosteric regulation. This study provides insight into the energetics of light sensing by phototropins and benchmark values for engineering photoswitchable systems based on the LOV-J alpha interaction.

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