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Endocrinology. 2008 Oct;149(10):5162-71. doi: 10.1210/en.2008-0481. Epub 2008 Jul 3.

Temporal recruitment of transcription factors at the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate-response element of the human GnRH-II promoter.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, Room 2H-30, 4490 Oak Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6H 3V5.


GnRH-II is a potent GnRH subtype involved in modulating OVCAR-3 cell proliferation and the invasive properties of JEG-3 cells, and an atypical cAMP-response element (CRE) in the human GnRH-II promoter influences its activation. We demonstrated that the GnRH-II promoter is activated by 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP in several cell lines including alphaT3, TE671, JEG-3, and OVCAR-3 cells and that cAMP enhances GnRH-II mRNA levels in JEG-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. Moreover, 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP increases cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in JEG-3 and OVCAR-3 cells and augments CBP and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-beta coimmunoprecipitation with phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB) in a temporally defined manner from nuclear extracts. When CREB, CBP, and C/EBPbeta levels were knocked down by small interfering RNA, reductions in any of these transcription factors reduced cAMP-enhanced GnRH-II promoter activity and GnRH-II mRNA levels in JEG-3 and OVCAR-3 cells. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that p-CREB bound the CRE within the endogenous GnRH-II promoter within 1 h and that p-CREB association with C/EBPbeta occurs within 2 h of cAMP stimulation, coincident with the first appearance of C/EBPbeta at the CRE. By contrast, maximum interactions between p-CREB and CBP do not occur until at least 4 h after cAMP stimulation, and this is reflected in the progressive loading of CBP at the CRE at 2-4 h, as demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these data suggest that p-CREB, C/EBPbeta, and CBP are recruited to the CRE of the GnRH-II promoter in a temporarily defined manner to enhance its transcription in JEG-3 and OVCAR-3 cells in response to cAMP.

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