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Heart Fail Clin. 2008 Jul;4(3):315-24. doi: 10.1016/j.hfc.2008.03.001.

Twist and untwist mechanics of the left ventricle.

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  • 1Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA.


The counterdirectional rotation of the left ventricle apex with respect to the base is referred to as left ventricular twist or torsion. This review provides a theoretical basis for understanding the physiologic sequence of left ventricular twist during a cardiac cycle. Variations in left ventricular twist encountered in different experimental and clinical situations are discussed.

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