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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008 Aug;9(8):616-27. doi: 10.1038/nrm2450. Epub 2008 Jul 2.

ATR: an essential regulator of genome integrity.

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  • 1Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Clark Center, 318 Campus Drive, W350B, Stanford, California 94305-5441, USA.


Genome maintenance is a constant concern for cells, and a coordinated response to DNA damage is required to maintain cellular viability and prevent disease. The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and RAD3-related (ATR) protein kinases act as master regulators of the DNA-damage response by signalling to control cell-cycle transitions, DNA replication, DNA repair and apoptosis. Recent studies have provided new insights into the mechanisms that control ATR activation, have helped to explain the overlapping but non-redundant activities of ATR and ATM in DNA-damage signalling, and have clarified the crucial functions of ATR in maintaining genome integrity.

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