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Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009 May;157(2):174-209. doi: 10.1007/s12010-008-8279-z. Epub 2008 Jun 26.

Structure and action mechanism of ligninolytic enzymes.

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  • 1Western Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710, USA. dwsw@pw.usda.gov

Abstract

Lignin is the most abundant renewable source of aromatic polymer in nature, and its decomposition is indispensable for carbon recycling. It is chemically recalcitrant to breakdown by most organisms because of the complex, heterogeneous structure. The white-rot fungi produce an array of extracellular oxidative enzymes that synergistically and efficiently degrade lignin. The major groups of ligninolytic enzymes include lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, versatile peroxidases, and laccases. The peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes with catalytic cycles that involve the activation by H2O2 and substrate reduction of compound I and compound II intermediates. Lignin peroxidases have the unique ability to catalyze oxidative cleavage of C-C bonds and ether (C-O-C) bonds in non-phenolic aromatic substrates of high redox potential. Manganese peroxidases oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III), which facilitates the degradation of phenolic compounds or, in turn, oxidizes a second mediator for the breakdown of non-phenolic compounds. Versatile peroxidases are hybrids of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase with a bifunctional characteristic. Laccases are multi-copper-containing proteins that catalyze the oxidation of phenolic substrates with concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen to water. This review covers the chemical nature of lignin substrates and focuses on the biochemical properties, molecular structures, reaction mechanisms, and related structures/functions of these enzymes.

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