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Behav Brain Res. 2008 Nov 3;193(1):148-51. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2008.05.004. Epub 2008 May 16.

Oscillations in shoal cohesion in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

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  • 1Department of Psychology, University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Road North, Mississauga, Toronto, Ontario, L5L 1C6 Canada.


In many species, group cohesion may be the result of a compromise between opposing forces (e.g. predator avoidance and competition for food). However, little empirical data exists on the dynamics of group cohesion. We present moment-to-moment positional data on zebrafish shoals and analyze temporal changes in inter-individual distances. We demonstrate that the distance between shoal members does not settle at any given value, as has previously been assumed, but oscillates with a period between 5 and 15s.

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