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Artif Life. 2008 Fall;14(4):425-43. doi: 10.1162/artl.2008.14.4.14402.

The numerical measure of symmetry for 3D stick creatures.

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  • 1Poznan University of Technology Institute of Computing Science, Piotrowo 2, Poznań, Poland.


This work introduces a numerical, continuous measure of symmetry for 3D stick creatures and solid 3D objects. Background information about the property of symmetry is provided, and motivations for developing a symmetry measure are described. Three approaches are mentioned, and two of them are presented in detail using formal mathematical language. The best approach is used to sort a set of creatures according to their symmetry. Experiments with a mixed set of 84 individuals originating from both human design and evolution are performed to examine symmetry within these two sources, and to determine if human designers and evolutionary processes prefer symmetry or asymmetry.

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