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Pain Med. 2008 Nov;9(8):1091-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2008.00473.x. Epub 2008 Jun 18.

Tobacco use in relation to chronic pain: results from a Swedish population survey.

Author information

  • Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. ulf.jakobsson@med.lu.se



To study the relationship between tobacco use and pain intensity.


An age-stratified cross-sectional study was carried out in southern Sweden in 2005.


The population study consists of 384 people, aged 18-102 years, with chronic pain.


Data collection took place by means of a postal questionnaire. Comparisons of pain intensity were made between smokers and nonsmokers, and between users and nonusers of moist snuff. A multiple linear regression analysis was carried out in order to identify the determinants of pain intensity.


Among respondents with chronic pain, smokers experienced a higher pain intensity than nonsmokers, although there was no evidence of such a difference among snuff users. The regression analysis revealed that gender (i.e., women) and smoking significantly increased pain intensity.


Pain intensity was highest among daily smokers and those who had quit. Thus, interventions to prevent smoking (to stop smoking and in particular not to start smoking) among people with chronic pain may not only be considered a method to improve health but also to reduce pain.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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