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Langmuir. 2008 Jul 15;24(14):7338-45. doi: 10.1021/la800313s. Epub 2008 Jun 14.

Change of adsorption modes of dyes on fluorinated TiO2 and its effect on photocatalytic degradation of dyes under visible irradiation.

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  • 1Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Photochemistry, Institute of Chemistry, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080, China.


Surface-fluorinated TiO2 (F-TiO2) particles were prepared via the HF etching method. The surface characteristics of fluorinated TiO2, the adsorption modes of dyes, and the reaction pathways for the photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants under visible light irradiation were investigated. It was found that, in the treatment of TiO2 by HF etching, F(-) not only displaces surface HO(-) but also substitutes some surface lattice oxygen. Using zwitterionic Rhodamine B (RhB) dye as a model, the change of the adsorption mode of RhB on F-TiO2 relative to that on pure TiO2 was validated by adsorption isotherms, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and IR techniques for the first time. RhB preferentially anchors on pure TiO2 through the carboxylic (-COOH) group, while its adsorption group is switched to the cationic moiety (-NEt 2 group) on F-TiO2. Both the photocatalytic degradation kinetics and mechanisms were drastically changed after surface fluorination. Dyes with positively charged nitrogen-alkyl groups such as methylene blue (MB), malachite green (MG), Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G), and RhB all underwent a rapid N-dealkylation process on F-TiO2, while on pure TiO2 direct cleavage of dye chromophore ring structures predominated. The relationship between surface fluorination and the degradation rate/pathway of dyes under visible irradiation was also discussed in terms of the effect of fluorination on the surface adsorption of dyes and on the energy band structure of TiO2.

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