Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Blood. 2008 Aug 15;112(4):1259-68. doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-12-130773. Epub 2008 Jun 12.

PILAR is a novel modulator of human T-cell expansion.

Author information

  • 1Department ofMicrobiology and Immunology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH, USA.


Robust T-cell responses without autoimmunity are only possible through a fine balance between activating and inhibitory signals. We have identified a novel modulator of T-cell expansion named proliferation-induced lymphocyte-associated receptor (PILAR). Surface PILAR is markedly up-regulated on CD4 and, to a lesser extent, on CD8 T cells on T-cell receptor engagement. In absence of CD28 costimulation, PILAR signaling through CD161 supports CD3 antibody-dependent and antigen-specificT-cell proliferation by increasing the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and induces secretion of T helper type 1 cytokines. These effects are abrogated by PILAR blockade with specific antibodies, which decrease surface levels of CD28. In contrast, PILAR induces apoptotic death on naive and early activated T cells if CD161 engagement is blocked. PILAR is expressed by approximately 7% to 10% of CD4 T cells in 2 samples of inflammatory synovial fluid, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of joint inflammation. In addition, in the ovarian cancer microenvironment, effector T cells express PILAR, but not CD161, although expression of both can be augmented ex vivo. Our results indicate that PILAR plays a central role in modulating the extent of T-cell expansion. Manipulation of PILAR signaling may be important for treatment of autoimmune diseases and cancer.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk