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J Occup Environ Med. 2008 Jun;50(6):658-66. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181734330.

Working overtime is associated with anxiety and depression: the Hordaland Health Study.

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  • 1Medical Faculty, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.



To examine whether long work hours are associated with increased levels and prevalences of anxiety and depression.


Overtime workers (n = 1350) were compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle, and somatic health was included.


Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels and higher prevalences of anxiety and depressive disorders compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.


Working overtime is associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression. The working groups differed significantly regarding several factors including income and heavy manual labor.

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