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Plant Physiol. 2008 Jul;147(3):1358-68. doi: 10.1104/pp.108.121392. Epub 2008 Jun 6.

Kinetics of salicylate-mediated suppression of jasmonate signaling reveal a role for redox modulation.

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  • 1Graduate School Experimental Plant Sciences, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Cross talk between salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways plays an important role in the regulation and fine tuning of induced defenses that are activated upon pathogen or insect attack. Pharmacological experiments revealed that transcription of JA-responsive marker genes, such as PDF1.2 and VSP2, is highly sensitive to suppression by SA. This antagonistic effect of SA on JA signaling was also observed when the JA pathway was biologically activated by necrotrophic pathogens or insect herbivores, and when the SA pathway was triggered by a biotrophic pathogen. Furthermore, all 18 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions tested displayed SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression, highlighting the potential significance of this phenomenon in induced plant defenses in nature. During plant-attacker interactions, the kinetics of SA and JA signaling are highly dynamic. Mimicking this dynamic response by applying SA and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) at different concentrations and time intervals revealed that PDF1.2 transcription is readily suppressed when the SA response was activated at or after the onset of the JA response, and that this SA-JA antagonism is long lasting. However, when SA was applied more than 30 h prior to the onset of the JA response, the suppressive effect of SA was completely absent. The window of opportunity of SA to suppress MeJA-induced PDF1.2 transcription coincided with a transient increase in glutathione levels. The glutathione biosynthesis inhibitor l-buthionine-sulfoximine strongly reduced PDF1.2 suppression by SA, suggesting that SA-mediated redox modulation plays an important role in the SA-mediated attenuation of the JA signaling pathway.

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