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J Pediatr. 2008 Oct;153(4):491-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.04.016. Epub 2008 Jun 9.

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1.

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  • 1Division of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33101, USA.



To determine risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) compared with nationally representative controls from 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data.


A prospective, longitudinal analysis of CVD risk factors in 42 HIV-infected children compared with NHANES controls, with multivariable modeling of demographic, disease-specific, and treatment-related factors contributing to cardiac risk in the HIV cohort.


The 42 children infected with HIV were initially an average of 10.1 years old; 68% were Centers for Disease Control and Prevention pediatric HIV disease stage B or C, and 76% were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Compared with age- and sex-adjusted NHANES controls, the children infected with HIV had lower weight (-0.46 standard deviation [SD] vs +0.54 SD; P < .001), height (-0.62 SD vs +0.26 SD; P < .001), and body mass index (-0.09 SD vs +0.51 SD; P < .001), a higher level of triglycerides (136 mg/dL vs 90 mg/dL; P < .001), and a lower level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (47 mg/dL vs 54 mg/dL; P < .001). Protease inhibitor therapy was independently associated with higher triglyceride (P = .02) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (P = .04) and lower HDL cholesterol level (P = .02); nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor therapy was associated with lower visceral fat (P = .01) and higher HDL cholesterol level (P = .005).


Children infected with HIV have adverse cardiac risk profiles compared with NHANES controls. Antiretroviral therapy has a significant influence on these factors.

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