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J Acoust Soc Am. 2008 Jun;123(6):4572-81. doi: 10.1121/1.2908289.

Phonatory characteristics of excised pig, sheep, and cow larynges.

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  • 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA. alipour@iowa.uiowa.edu


The purpose of this study was to examine the phonatory characteristics of pig, sheep, and cow excised larynges and to find out which of these animal species is the best model for human phonation. Excised pig, sheep, and cow larynges were prepared and mounted over a tapered tube on the excised bench that supplied pressurized, heated, and humidified air in a manner similar to that for excised canine models. Each excised larynx was subjected to a series of pressure-flow experiments with adduction as major control parameter. The subglottal pressure, electroglottograph (EGG), mean flow rate, audio signal, and sound pressure level were recorded during each experiment. EGG signal was used to extract the fundamental frequency. It was found that pressure-frequency relations were nonlinear for these species with large rate of frequency changes for the pig. The average oscillation frequencies for these species were 220+/-57 Hz for the pig, 102+/-33 Hz for the sheep, and 73+/-10 Hz for the cow. The average phonation threshold pressure for the pig was 7.4+/-2.0 cm H(2)O, 6.9+/-2.9 cm H(2)O for the sheep, and 4.4+/-2.3 cm H(2)O for the cow.

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