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Nano Lett. 2008 Jul;8(7):2012-6. doi: 10.1021/nl8011566. Epub 2008 Jun 5.

Substrate-free gas-phase synthesis of graphene sheets.

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  • 1Applied Science and Technology Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.


We present a novel method for synthesizing graphene sheets in the gas phase using a substrate-free, atmospheric-pressure microwave plasma reactor. Graphene sheets were synthesized by passing liquid ethanol droplets into an argon plasma. The graphene sheets were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electron diffraction. We prove that graphene can be created without three-dimensional materials or substrates and demonstrate a possible avenue to the large-scale synthesis of graphene.

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