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Leukemia. 2008 Aug;22(8):1529-38. doi: 10.1038/leu.2008.130. Epub 2008 Jun 5.

Genome-wide identification of aberrantly methylated promoter associated CpG islands in acute lymphocytic leukemia.

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  • 1Department of Leukemia, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


We performed a genome-wide analysis of promoter associated CpG island methylation using methylated CpG island amplification (MCA) coupled to representational differential analysis (RDA) or a DNA promoter microarray in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We identified 65 potential targets of methylation with the MCA/RDA approach, and 404 with the MCA/array. Thirty-six (77%) of the genes identified by MCA/RDA were shared by the MCA/array approach. Chromosomal location of these genes was evenly distributed in all autosomes. Functionally, 303 of these genes clustered in 18 molecular pathways. Of the 36 shared genes, 31 were validated and 26 were confirmed as being hypermethylated in leukemia cell lines. Expression analysis of eight of these genes was epigenetically modulated by hypomethylating agents and/or HDAC inhibitors in leukemia cell lines. Subsequently, DNA methylation of 15 of these genes (GIPC2, RSPO1, MAGI1, CAST1, ADCY5, HSPA4L, OCLN, EFNA5, MSX2, GFPT2, GNA14, SALL1, MYO5B, ZNF382 and MN1) was validated in primary ALL samples. Patients with methylation of multiple CpG islands had a worse overall survival. This is the largest published list of potential methylation target genes in human leukemia offering the possibility of performing rational unbiased methylation studies in ALL.

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