Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008 Jun;162(6):513-9. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.162.6.513.

Hypovitaminosis D among healthy children in the United States: a review of the current evidence.

Author information

  • 1Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Blvd, Room 7B13A, MSC 7510, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. rovneral@mail.nih.gov

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To review the published literature on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in US children.

DATA SOURCES:

Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE using 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D, hypovitaminosis D, vitamin D insufficiency, vitamin D deficiency, children, and adolescents as key words and by screening references from original studies.

STUDY SELECTION:

Studies were included if they fulfilled the following a priori criteria: contained a well-defined sample of children, included only healthy children, presented data on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, were published in the past 10 years, and were conducted in the United States.

DATA EXTRACTION:

Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and prevalence of low vitamin D status (hypovitaminosis D).

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Fourteen articles fulfilled the criteria. There were no consistent definitions of hypovitaminosis D; values corresponding to vitamin D deficiency ranged from less than 5 ng/mL to less than 12 ng/mL, and those for vitamin D insufficiency ranged from less than 10 ng/mL to less than 32 ng/mL (to convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 2.496). The following assays were used: radioimmunoassay (7 studies), competitive binding protein assay (3 studies), automated chemiluminescence protein-binding assay (3 studies), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (1 study). Breastfed infants in winter who did not receive vitamin D supplementation were the most severely vitamin D deficient (78%). Estimates of the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D ranged from 1% to 78%. Older age, winter season, higher body mass index, black race/ethnicity, and elevated parathyroid hormone concentrations were associated with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations.

CONCLUSION:

Although overt vitamin D deficiency is no longer common in US children, lesser degrees of vitamin D insufficiency are widespread.

Comment in

  • Vitamin D and rickets beyond America. [Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008]
PMID:
18524740
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk