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Mcgill J Med. 2008 Jan;11(1):29-37.

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a look at prosthetics--past, present and possible future.

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  • 1University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, USA. mascarenhasr@upmc.edu


Biological tissue autograft reconstruction using the patellar tendon or quadrupled semitendinosus/gracilis tendons has become the most popular procedure in surgical treatment of a ruptured ACL. This article provides a review of the history of the use of prosthetics with respect to ACL reconstruction grafts including Carbon Fibre, Gore-Tex and Dacron prosthetics as well as the Leeds-Keio Artificial Ligament and the Kennedy Ligament Augmentation Device (LAD). Emphasis is placed on the Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) as preliminary investigations of its use have been encouraging. Significant progress has been made recently with respect to the understanding of ACL anatomy, composition, biomechanics, and healing processes, leading to innovative techniques using approaches based in tissue engineering principles and computer - assisted surgery. While research into improved ACL treatment options continues, the synthesis of recent advancements provides a new optimism towards the regeneration of an ACL mirroring its original stability, function, and longevity.


anterior cruciate ligament; biomaterials; prosthetics; synthetic grafts; tissue engineering

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