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J Clin Ultrasound. 1991 Mar-Apr;19(3):139-42.

Transvaginal ultrasound scanning in early pregnancy and correlation with human chorionic gonadotropin levels.

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  • 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.


Pregnancy can be detected early using transvaginal ultrasonography and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) measurements. The purpose of this study was to correlate serum hCG levels with transvaginal gestational sac measurements. The mean sac diameter (MSD) and gestational sac diameter (GSD) were calculated as the mean and cube root of the product, respectively, of three sac dimensions taken at right angles. A nonlinear relationship between hCG (natural logarithm) and MSD and GSD was observed. The data were best fitted by a second order polynomial regression model (r2 = 0.98), thereby establishing normal hCG levels for various gestational sac dimensions in early pregnancy.

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