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Neurochem Res. 2008 Nov;33(11):2324-34. doi: 10.1007/s11064-008-9737-2. Epub 2008 May 21.

Differential regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue plasminogen activator activity by the cyclic-AMP system in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated rat primary astrocytes.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine and Center for Geriatric Neuroscience Research, Institute of Biomedical Science and Technology, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul, 143-701, South Korea.


We investigated the effect of the cAMP system on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced changes in the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in rat primary astrocytes. LPS stimulation increased MMP-9 and decreased tPA activity in rat primary astrocytes. Co-treatment with a cAMP analog, dibutyryl-cAMP (db-cAMP), or the cAMP elevating beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, concentration-dependently inhibited LPS-induced MMP-9 activity. In contrast, db-cAMP concentration-dependently increased tPA activity in both basal and LPS-stimulated rat primary astrocytes. To confirm the effect of cAMP on MMP-9 and tPA activity, we treated LPS-stimulated astrocytes with cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors, IBMX or rolipram, and they exhibited similar effects to db-cAMP, namely decreasing MMP-9 activity and increasing tPA activity. RT-PCR analysis of MMP-9 mRNA expression and MMP-9 promoter luciferase reporter assays revealed transcriptional upregulation by LPS stimulation and downregulation by db-cAMP. In contrast, the level of tPA mRNA expression was increased both by LPS and by cAMP treatment. Consistent with RT-PCR analysis, tPA promoter reporter assays showed increased activity by both LPS and cAMP stimulation. Interestingly, the level of mRNA encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was increased by LPS stimulation and decreased back to control level after co-treatment with db-cAMP, suggesting that PAI-1 expression plays a major role in the regulation of tPA activity. To examine PKA involvement in the effects of db-cAMP on MMP-9 and tPA activity, we added the PKA inhibitors, H89 or rp-cAMP, along with db-cAMP, and they inhibited db-cAMP-mediated changes in tPA activity without affecting MMP-9 activity. These data suggest that cAMP differentially modulates MMP-9 and tPA activity through a mechanism related to PKA activation. The differential regulation of MMP-9 and tPA by the cAMP system may confer more sophisticated regulation of physiological processes, such as extracellular matrix remodeling and cell migration, by activated astrocytes.

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