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Biotechniques. 2008 Apr;44(5):643-4, 646, 648. doi: 10.2144/000112798.

Over the rainbow: 25 years of confocal imaging.

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  • 1Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.


Confocal microscopes have evolved over the past 25 years from the early stage scanning systems to a collection of sophisticated laser scanning systems designed for a range of biomedical applications. Major improvements to the photon efficiency of the instrumentation coupled with the development of novel fluorescent reporters have enabled multidimensional imaging of living cells and tissues.

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