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Am J Kidney Dis. 2008 Aug;52(2):216-26. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2007.12.044. Epub 2008 May 12.

Albuminuria and dementia in the elderly: a community study.

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  • 1Kaiser Permanente of Georgia, Tucker, GA 30084, USA.



Dementia is associated with microvascular disease of the retina. In this study, we examine whether cognitive status (normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and dementia) is associated with albuminuria, a microvascular disorder of the kidney.


Cross-sectional analysis.


2,316 participants from the Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and testing for albuminuria.


Doubling of albuminuria.


Dementia defined according to neuropsychological and clinical evaluation.


Multinomial logistic modeling was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of dementia and mild cognitive impairment with doubling of albuminuria compared with the odds with normal cognition.


283 participants (12.2%) had dementia, 344 (14.9%) had mild cognitive impairment, and 1,689 (72.9%) had normal cognition. Compared with participants with normal cognition, doubling of albuminuria was associated with increased odds of dementia (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.29). Adjustment for prevalent cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular risk factors, lipid levels, C-reactive protein level, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and apolipoprotein E-4 genotype attenuated this association, but it remained statistically significant (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.22). Mild cognitive impairment was associated with albuminuria on unadjusted analysis, but not with adjustment for other factors.


Results are cross-sectional; causality cannot be imputed.


The odds of dementia increased in the presence of albuminuria. These findings suggest a role of shared susceptibility for microvascular disease in the brain and kidney in older adults.

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