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Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Aug;36(8):1637-49. doi: 10.1124/dmd.107.019562. Epub 2008 May 7.

Pathways of carbamazepine bioactivation in vitro. III. The role of human cytochrome P450 enzymes in the formation of 2,3-dihydroxycarbamazepine.

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  • 1Section of Developmental Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Pediatric Pharmacology and Medical Toxicology, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, 2401 Gillham Road, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA. rpearce@cmh.edu

Abstract

Conversion of the carbamazepine metabolite 3-hydroxycarbamazepine (3-OHCBZ) to the catechol 2,3-dihydroxycarbamazepine (2,3-diOHCBZ) followed by subsequent oxidation to a reactive o-quinone species has been proposed as a possible bioactivation pathway in the pathogenesis of carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity. Initial in vitro phenotyping studies implicated CYP3A4 as a primary catalyst of 2,3-diOHCBZ formation: 2-hydroxylation of 3-OHCBZ correlated significantly (r(2) > or = 0.929, P < 0.001) with CYP3A4/5 activities in a panel of human liver microsomes (n = 14) and was markedly impaired by CYP3A inhibitors (>80%) but not by inhibitors of other cytochrome P450 enzymes (< or = 20%). However, in the presence of troleandomycin, the rate of 2,3-diOHCBZ formation correlated significantly with CYP2C19 activity (r(2) = 0.893, P < 0.001) in the panel of human liver microsomes. Studies with a panel of cDNA-expressed enzymes revealed that CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 were high (S50 = 30 microM) and low (S50 = 203 microM) affinity enzymes, respectively, for 2,3-diOHCBZ formation and suggested that CYP3A4, but not CYP2C19, might be inactivated by a metabolite formed from 3-OHCBZ. Subsequent experiments demonstrated that preincubation of 3-OHCBZ with human liver microsomes or recombinant CYP3A4 led to decreased CYP3A4 activity, which was both preincubation time- and concentration-dependent, but not inhibited by inclusion of glutathione or N-acetylcysteine. CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 converted [14C]3-OHCBZ into protein-reactive metabolites, but CYP3A4 was the most catalytically active enzyme. The results of this study suggest that CYP3A4-dependent secondary oxidation of 3-OHCBZ represents a potential carbamazepine bioactivation pathway via formation of reactive metabolites capable of inactivating CYP3A4, potentially generating a neoantigen that may play a role in the etiology of carbamazepine-induced idiosyncratic toxicity.

PMID:
18463198
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2562787
Free PMC Article

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