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Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 May;198(5):500.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2008.03.064.

The economic burden of noncervical human papillomavirus disease in the United States.

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  • 1Program in Health Decision Science, Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.



The purpose of this study was (1) to estimate the direct medical costs of 7 major noncervical human papillomavirus (HPV)-related conditions that include genital cancers, mouth and oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and (2) to approximate the economic burden of noncervical HPV disease.


For each condition, we synthesized the best available secondary data to produce lifetime cost per case estimates, which were expressed in present value. Using an incidence-based approach, we then applied these costs to develop an aggregate measure of economic burden.


The economic burden that was associated with noncervical HPV-6-, -11-, -16-, and -18-related conditions in the US population in the year 2003 approximates $418 million (range, $160 million to $1.6 billion).


The economic burden of noncervical HPV disease is substantial. Analyses that assess the value of investments in HPV prevention and control programs should take into account the costs and morbidity and mortality rates that are associated with these conditions.

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