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J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 27;283(26):18283-91. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M801013200. Epub 2008 May 1.

Homo-oligomerization is essential for Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domain-containing adaptor molecule-1-mediated NF-kappaB and interferon regulatory factor-3 activation.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.


Toll-IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor molecule-1 (TICAM-1, also named TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon (IFN)-beta or TRIF)) is a signaling adaptor of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3/4 that activates the transcription factors, interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) and NF-kappaB leading to inducing IFN-beta production. The mechanisms by which TICAM-1 is activated by TLR3/4 to serve as a signaling platform are unknown. In this study, we show that homo-oligomerization of TICAM-1 is critical for TICAM-1-mediated activation of NF-kappaB and IRF-3. Both TIR and C-terminal domain of TICAM-1 mediated TICAM-1 oligomerization. Pro(434) located in the TIR domain and the C-terminal region, with the exception of the RIP homotypic-interacting motif, were determinants of TICAM-1 oligomerization. Mutation of TIR domain (P434H) or deletion of C-terminal domain greatly reduced TICAM-1-mediated NF-kappaB and IFN-beta promoter activation. TICAM-1 oligomerization at either the TIR domain or the C-terminal region resulted in recruitment of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3, a downstream signaling molecule essential for TICAM-1-mediated IRF-3 activation, but not recruitment of the IRF-3 kinase complex, NF-kappaB-activating kinase-associated protein 1 and TANK-binding kinase 1. In addition, RIP homotypic-interacting motif mutant, which possesses two oligomerization motifs but not the RIP1 binding motif, also failed to recruit NF-kappaB-activating kinase-associated protein 1 and TANK-binding kinase 1. Thus, full activation and formation of TICAM-1 signalosomes requires oligomerization induced at two different sites and RIP1 binding.

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