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J Clin Densitom. 2008 Jul-Sep;11(3):383-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jocd.2008.02.006. Epub 2008 May 2.

First update of the Lebanese guidelines for osteoporosis assessment and treatment.

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  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.


With the demographic explosion, the human, social, and economic costs of osteoporosis in developing countries, including the Middle East, will continue to rise. In 2002, the Lebanese Guidelines for Osteoporosis Assessment and Treatment were developed to optimize quality of osteoporosis care in Lebanon and the region. They were endorsed by 5 Lebanese medical scientific societies, and by the Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office branch of the World Health Organization (WHO). In April 2006, the Lebanese Society for Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Disorders (OSTEOS) led an initiative to update several recommendations detailed in the original document, based on relevant new local and international data. Data from a population-based sample of elderly Lebanese validated the following recommendations: fracture risk assessment, expressed as relative risk per standard deviation (RR/SD) decrease, was comparable in Lebanese subjects to similarly derived estimates from Western studies; the use of the NHANES database (hip), and the densitometer American database (spine) was as good, if not superior to the use of a Lebanese database for identifying subjects with prevalent vertebral fractures. The original recommendation regarding the use of a gender-specific western database, densitometer for spine and NHANES for T-score derivation for men, remains unchanged. For skeletal site selection, the update recommends measuring the spine and hip for women < or =65 yr, hip only for subjects >65 yr, and adding the forearm in conditions associated with cortical bone loss or in the case of inability to measure axial sites. The original recommendations for conservative management in premenopausal women were reiterated. This First Update of the Lebanese Osteoporosis Guidelines validates previous recommendations using evidence from a population-based sample of elderly Lebanese, and lays the ground for transitioning the Lebanese Osteoporosis Guidelines to the WHO global fracture risk assessment model.

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