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J Infect Dis. 2008 May 15;197 Suppl 3:S279-93. doi: 10.1086/533414.

Management of hepatic complications in HIV-infected persons.

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  • Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. msulkowski@jhmi.edu


In the era of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), liver disease is the second most common cause of death among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Liver disease-related deaths mostly result from chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV). In addition, recent reports suggest that HCV infection may be transmitted sexually between HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Management of these conditions in HIV-infected persons requires careful consideration, balancing the potential benefits of therapy with the potential for significant treatment-related adverse effects (HCV infection) and viral resistance and/or hepatitis flares (HBV infection). Furthermore, several antiretroviral agents are active against HBV infection, including lamivudine, emtricitabine, tenofovir, and, more recently, entecavir. Despite the complexity and potential for antiretroviral-associated hepatotoxicity, ART usually is safe for patients with viral hepatitis coinfection, and, in some cases, treatment for HIV infection may be beneficial for the liver.

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