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Pathology. 2008 Jun;40(4):401-6. doi: 10.1080/00313020801911462.

Partial and severe factor XI deficiency in South Australia and the usefulness of factor XI mutation analysis for diagnosis.

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  • 1Haematology Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, Adelaide, South Australia. elizabeth.duncan@imvs.sa.gov.au



To correlate the presence or absence of a factor XI gene mutation with factor XI activity in patients with severe or partial reduction in factor XI.


Patients previously found to have reduced factor XI levels were recalled for repeat testing and factor XI genetic analysis. Also, during the 18 month study period, any routine patient found to have an isolated reduced or low normal factor XI level had factor XI genetic analysis.


Twenty-two cases were studied and 11 with factor XI from <2 to 57 U/dL (reference 55-130 U/dL), were found to have a factor XI gene mutation. Gene sequencing identified 15 different mutations, with four patients found to be compound heterozygotes. One patient with no bleeding history had a novel polymorphism which family studies showed was not associated with his low factor XI. No factor XI gene abnormality was detected in 10 patients and they have either acquired causes of deficiency or factor XI levels in the lower portion of the normal range.


Genetic analysis of the factor XI gene is important to confirm or exclude inherited causes of factor XI deficiency, especially when the reduction is mild.

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