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Arch Intern Med. 2008 Apr 28;168(8):832-9. doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.8.832.

Long-term effects of renin-angiotensin system-blocking therapy and a low blood pressure goal on progression of hypertensive chronic kidney disease in African Americans.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Antihypertensive drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] or angiotensin receptor blockers) are recommended for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A low blood pressure (BP) goal (BP, <130/80 mm Hg) is also recommended. The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effects of currently recommended BP therapy in 1094 African Americans with hypertensive CKD.

METHODS:

Multicenter cohort study following a randomized trial. Participants were 1094 African Americans with hypertensive renal disease (glomerular filtration rate, 20-65 mL/min/1.73 m2). Following a 3x2-factorial trial (1995-2001) that tested 3 drugs used as initial antihypertensive therapy (ACEIs, calcium channel blockers, and beta-blockers) and 2 levels of BP control (usual and low), we conducted a cohort study (2002-2007) in which participants were treated with ACEIs to a BP lower than 130/80 mm Hg. The outcome measures were a composite of doubling of the serum creatinine level, end-stage renal disease, or death.

RESULTS:

During each year of the cohort study, the annual use of an ACEI or an angiotensin receptor blocker ranged from 83.7% to 89.0% (vs 38.5% to 49.8% during the trial). The mean BP in the cohort study was 133/78 mm Hg (vs 136/82 mm Hg in the trial). Overall, 567 participants experienced the primary outcome; the 10-year cumulative incidence rate was 53.9%. Of 576 participants with at least 7 years of follow-up, 33.5% experienced a slow decline in kidney function (mean annual decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate, <1 mL/min/1.73 m2).

CONCLUSION:

Despite the benefits of renin-angiotensin system-blocking therapy on CKD progression, most African Americans with hypertensive CKD who are treated with currently recommended BP therapy continue to progress during the long term.

PMID:
18443258
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3870204
Free PMC Article
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