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Endocr Rev. 2008 Aug;29(5):535-59. doi: 10.1210/er.2007-0036. Epub 2008 Apr 24.

Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors, and the skeleton.

Author information

  • 1Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy. a.giustina@libero.it

Abstract

GH and IGF-I are important regulators of bone homeostasis and are central to the achievement of normal longitudinal bone growth and bone mass. Although GH may act directly on skeletal cells, most of its effects are mediated by IGF-I, which is present in the systemic circulation and is synthesized by peripheral tissues. The availability of IGF-I is regulated by IGF binding proteins. IGF-I enhances the differentiated function of the osteoblast and bone formation. Adult GH deficiency causes low bone turnover osteoporosis with high risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures, and the low bone mass can be partially reversed by GH replacement. Acromegaly is characterized by high bone turnover, which can lead to bone loss and vertebral fractures, particularly in patients with coexistent hypogonadism. GH and IGF-I secretion are decreased in aging individuals, and abnormalities in the GH/IGF-I axis play a role in the pathogenesis of the osteoporosis of anorexia nervosa and after glucocorticoid exposure.

PMID:
18436706
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2726838
Free PMC Article

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