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J Infect. 2008 Jul;57(1):33-40. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2008.03.007. Epub 2008 Apr 24.

Identifying HIV patients with an unfavorable cardiovascular risk profile in the clinical practice: results from the SIMONE study.

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  • 1Department of Infectious Diseases, Santa Maria Hospital, Perugia, Italy.



To identify and characterize HIV-infected patients at higher cardiovascular risk in ordinary clinical settings.


Multicenter, nationwide cross-sectional study.


Consecutive HIV-patients, attending scheduled visits at facilities involved in the Italian coordination group for the study of allergies and HIV infection (CISAI), were included between February and April, 2005. Their 10-year probability of acute coronary events was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) as well as 3 other cardiovascular algorithms ("PROCAM", "PROGETTO CUORE", "SCORE"); Metabolic Syndrome (MS) was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program definitions. An estimated 10-year CVD >or=10% and/or MS led to the diagnosis of high CV risk. We compared selected clinical features between high- and low-risk patients.


A total of 1230 HIV infected patients (72% males, mean age of 43+/-9 years), 185 of whom treatment-naive, were evaluated. FRS gave the highest estimate of CV risk. The mean 10-year risk for acute coronary events according to FRS was 7.4+/-7.0. MS was present in 22% of the observed patients. Accordingly, 443 patients (36%) were classified at high risk. Twelve percent of the patients (n=142) had both a FRS >or=10% and a diagnosis of MS. The main single predictor of increased cardiovascular risk was smoking (60% of whole sample). A higher prevalence of clinically evident lipodystrophy and a higher CD4 T-cell counts were found both in patients with higher FRS and in patients with high FRS and MS (both p<0.001).


The worst estimation of CV risk was obtained with the FRS algorithm. Clinical evidence of lipodystrophy and higher CD4 T-cell counts were closely associated to a worse cardiovascular risk profile.

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