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Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2008 Apr;5(4):471-81. doi: 10.1517/17425247.5.4.471 .

Current and future testosterone delivery systems for treatment of the hypogonadal male.

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  • 1Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 1830 E. Monument Street, Suite 328, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.



Hypogonadism is manifest in all age groups, and a growing elderly population is requiring treatment for testosterone deficiency, presenting new safety challenges, as many of these individuals present with comorbidities and significant risk profiles.


To discuss testosterone replacement modalities, their advantages and disadvantages, and provide a discussion of safety issues.


We reviewed the literature regarding testosterone replacement therapy and have provided a summary of our most outstanding findings.


Potential benefits of testosterone replacement therapy include increased lean body mass, heightened libido, increased bone density and elevation of mood. Some disadvantages are clearly defined, while others require further investigation. Patient and physician must cooperate to agree on an individual patient's most appropriate and tolerable route of administration.

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