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Clin Infect Dis. 2008 May 15;46(10):1589-97. doi: 10.1086/587109.

Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

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  • 1Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02139, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Emergence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance may limit the benefits of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. The prevalence of resistance was assessed among patients from KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, following failure of their first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen.

METHODS:

Genotypic resistance testing was performed on plasma virus samples from patients who experienced virologic failure of their first HAART regimen at 2 clinics in KwaZulu Natal. Clinical and demographic data were obtained from medical records. Regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with > or =1 significant drug resistance mutation.

RESULTS:

From January 2005 through August 2006, a total of 124 antiretroviral-treated adults who experienced virologic failure were enrolled. The predominant subtype was HIV-1C. Virus samples from 83.5% of participants carried > or =1 significant drug resistance mutation. Dual-class drug-resistant virus was present in 64.3% of participants, and 2.6% had virus with triple-class drug resistance. The most common mutation was M184V/I (64.3% of patients); K103N was present in virus from 51.3%, and V106M was present in virus from 19.1%. Thymidine analog resistance mutations were found in virus from 32.2% of patients, and protease resistance mutations were found in virus from 4.4%.

CONCLUSIONS:

Antiretroviral drug-resistant virus was detected in >80% of South African patients who experienced failure of a first HAART regimen. Patterns of drug resistance reflected drugs used in first-line regimens and viral subtype. Continued surveillance of resistance patterns is warranted to guide selection of second-line regimens.

Comment in

PMID:
18419495
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2692213
Free PMC Article
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