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Cancer Res. 2008 Apr 15;68(8):2622-31. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5266.

p53 Loss synergizes with estrogen and papillomaviral oncogenes to induce cervical and breast cancers.

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  • 1McArdle Laboratory for Cancer Research, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

Abstract

Whereas the tumor suppressor p53 gene is frequently mutated in most human cancers, this is not the case in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers, presumably because the viral E6 oncoprotein inactivates the p53 protein. The ability of E6 to transform cells in tissue culture and induce cancers in mice correlates in part with its ability to inactivate p53. In this study, we compared the expression of the HPV16 E6 oncogene to the conditional genetic disruption of p53 in the context of a mouse model for cervical cancer in which estrogen is a critical cofactor. Nearly all of the K14Crep53(f/f) mice treated with estrogen developed cervical cancer, a stark contrast to its complete absence in like-treated K14E6(WT)p53(f/f) mice, indicating that HPV16 E6 must only partially inactivate p53. p53-independent activities of E6 also contributed to carcinogenesis, but in the female reproductive tract, these activities were manifested only in the presence of the HPV16 E7 oncogene. Interestingly, treatment of K14Crep53(f/f) mice with estrogen also resulted in mammary tumors after only a short latency, many of which were positive for estrogen receptor alpha. The majority of these mammary tumors were of mixed cell types, suggestive of their originating from a multipotent progenitor. Furthermore, a subset of mammary tumors arising in the estrogen-treated, p53-deficient mammary glands exhibited evidence of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These data show the importance of the synergy between estrogen and p53 insufficiency in determining basic properties of carcinogenesis in hormone-responsive tissues, such as the breast and the reproductive tract.

PMID:
18413729
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2862766
Free PMC Article
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