Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008 Jul;62(1):72-82. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn142. Epub 2008 Apr 12.

Identification of differentially expressed genes in a Giardia lamblia WB C6 clone resistant to nitazoxanide and metronidazole.

Author information

  • 1Institute of Parasitology, University of Berne, Länggass-Strasse 122, CH-3012 Berne, Switzerland.



The characterization of differential gene expression in Giardia lamblia WB C6 strain C4 resistant to metronidazole and nitazoxanide using microarray technology and quantitative real-time PCR.


In a previous study, we created and characterized the G. lamblia WB C6 clone C4 resistant to nitazoxanide and metronidazole. In this study, using a microarray-based approach, we have identified open-reading frames (ORFs) that were differentially expressed in C4 when compared with its wild-type WB C6. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we have validated the expression patterns of some of those ORFs, focusing on chaperones such as heat-shock proteins in wild-type and C4 trophozoites. In order to induce an antigenic shift, trophozoites of both strains were subjected to a cycle of en- and excystation. Expression of selected genes and resistance to nitazoxanide and metronidazole were investigated after this cycle.


Forty of a total of 9115 ORFs were found to be up-regulated and 46 to be down-regulated in C4 when compared with wild-type. After a cycle of en- and excystation, resistance of C4 to nitazoxanide and metronidazole was lost. Resistance formation and en-/excystation were correlated with changes in expression of ORFs encoding for major surface antigens such as the variant surface protein TSA417 or AS7 ('antigenic shift'). Moreover, expression patterns of the cytosolic heat-shock protein HSP70 B2, HSP40, and of the previously identified nitazoxanide-binding proteins nitroreductase and protein disulphide isomerase PDI4 were correlated with resistance and loss of resistance after en-/excystation. C4 trophozoites had a higher thermotolerance level than wild-type trophozoites. After en-/excystation, this tolerance was lost.


These results suggest that resistance formation in Giardia to nitazoxanide and metronidazole is correlated with altered expression of genes involved in stress response such as heat-shock proteins.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk