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J Virol. 2008 Jun;82(11):5269-78. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02614-07. Epub 2008 Apr 2.

Cyclophilin A is an essential cofactor for hepatitis C virus infection and the principal mediator of cyclosporine resistance in vitro.

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  • 1Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4370, USA.

Abstract

Cyclosporine (CsA) and its derivatives potently suppress hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. Recently, CsA-resistant HCV replicons have been identified in vitro. We examined the dependence of the wild-type and CsA-resistant replicons on various cyclophilins for replication. A strong correlation between CsA resistance and reduced dependency on cyclophilin A (CyPA) for replication was identified. Silencing of CyPB or CyPC expression had no significant effect on replication, whereas various forms of small interfering RNA (siRNA) directed at CyPA inhibited HCV replication of wild-type but not CsA-resistant replicons. The efficiency of a particular siRNA in suppressing CyPA expression was correlated with its potency in inhibiting HCV replication, and expression of an siRNA-resistant CyPA cDNA rescued replication. In addition, an anti-CyPA antibody blocked replication of the wild-type but not the resistant replicon in an in vitro replication assay. Depletion of CyPA alone in the CsA-resistant replicon cells eliminated CsA resistance, indicating that CyPA is the chief mediator of the observed CsA resistance. The dependency on CyPA for replication was observed for both genotype (GT) 1a and 1b replicons as well as a GT 2a infectious virus. An interaction between CyPA and HCV RNA as well as the viral polymerase that is sensitive to CsA treatment in wild-type but not in resistant replicons was detected. These findings reveal the molecular mechanism of CsA resistance and identify CyPA as a critical cellular cofactor for HCV replication and infection.

PMID:
18385230
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2395199
Free PMC Article
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